What it means to be African American, belonging to a certain race, can no longer be taken for granted. As noted in Chapter 1, racial classification based on genetic origins is of questionable scientific legitimacy and of limited utility as a basis for understanding complex social phenomena (Yee et al., 1993). Still, the category "African American" provides a basis for social classification. African Americans are recognized by their physical features and are treated accordingly. Many African Americans identify as African American; they share a social identity and outlook Frable, 1997; Cooper & Denner, 1998. Scholars have defined and measured aspects of this sense of racial identity: its salience, its centrality to the sense of self, the regard others hold for African Americans, what African Americans believe about the regard others hold for them, and beliefs about the role and status of African Americans (Sellers et al., 1998).